Classification of ACEA oils z 1998 r.
When buying engine oil, we often have problems deciphering the markings and standards given by the manufacturer on the packaging. Oils used in Europe usually have two quality classifications on the label: American API (American Petroleum Institute) and the European ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers Association), SAE viscosity grade symbol and engine constructor approvals. We have already written about the API classification, now we turn to the ACEA classification. The first European CCMC classification was developed in 1977 year. The last edition of the CCMC classification is still sometimes referred to on oil labels. It defines the categories: G4 and G5 for gasoline engines, PD2 for diesel engines in passenger cars and D4 and D5 for diesel engines in trucks. The CCMC committee disbanded in 1991 year, and in its place in 1996. ACEA was founded, which introduced new classifications of engine oils.
Amendments to European legislation in the field of permitted emissions of harmful substances from car engines (Euro2, Euro3) entail changes to the design of the engines, which place new demands on oils, hence the necessity to modify oil classifications every few years.
In year 1998, ACEA classifications have undergone a fundamental modification. And so we have new product classifications:
• A1-98, A2-98, A3-98 – 4-stroke spark ignition engine oils;
• B1-98, B2-98, B3-98, B4-98 – oils for compression ignition engines used in passenger cars and delivery vans. The letter A stands for oils for gasoline engines; B – oils for compression ignition engines (diesel); while the numbers mean sequentially:
1 – energy-saving oils (fuel economy),
2 – high-class mineral oils
3 – top-class semi-synthetic and synthetic oils, as well as some mineral oils. Additionally, class B4 are special oils intended for diesel engines with direct fuel injection
• E1-96 / 2, E2-96/2, E3-96 / 2, E4-98 – for compression-ignition engines in trucks. The higher the number after the letter E, the better the oil's properties (anti-wear, antioxidant, e.t.c). The better the oil in the more difficult conditions and with longer mileage it can be used.
In year 1999 ACEA has introduced further modifications to the classification of diesel engine oils in trucks. In class E4, the limits of the amount of sediments in the turbocharger and oil consumption during the test on the 0M441LA engine were determined. The new E5-99 class was also introduced; it has similar requirements to the E3 grades (runs) and E4 (engine cleanliness, anti-wear properties).
The vast majority of engine oils available on our market can be used for both spark ignition engines (gasoline) and automatic (diesel engines). They are universal oils, Marked: A3 / B3.
Each of the ACEA classes is defined by specific engine tests, which allow you to evaluate the basic properties of the product. The system for achieving compliance with the relevant ACEA class is described in the ATIEL Code of Practice. The ACEA oil certification system is similar to the API certification system, some of the tests used in both systems are common, the differences lie in different requirements and a better alignment of the ACEA specification with the testing of oils operating in European designs, which are different from the American ones.
Each of the above-mentioned classes has a set of tests and requirements, which the oil of a given category should meet. These tests can be divided into two groups: laboratory (examining the physicochemical properties of oil: kinematic viscosity, dynamic, shear resistance, HT / HS viscosity, volatility, sulphated ash content, compatibility with elastomers, foaming) and engine tests (engines: Buick, Peugeot, Ford, five different Mercedes Benz engines, two VW engines, two Mack engines) carried out on engines properly selected for the application of the oil. Specifications of engine manufacturers. The most famous manufacturers of internal combustion engines have developed and implemented their own engine research tests, fulfillment, which is a condition for the engine manufacturer to enter a given oil on the list of oils recommended by this manufacturer. Factory specifications often place higher performance demands on engine oils, than API and ACEA quality specifications. Engine manufacturers often define the intervals between oil changes during their approval.