The history of FSO goes back to the turn of the years 1947/48, when an agreement was concluded with the Italian Fiat for the construction of a car factory in Poland. This move was influenced by the tradition of the pre-war Polish Fiat label. The Fiat concern was to provide a license for a mid-range passenger car and show far-reaching technical and organizational assistance. Spring 1949 Construction works in Żerań began in the year, the then suburb of Warsaw. The general deterioration of relations between East and West influenced this, that after a few months the contract with Fiat was terminated. Due to the inability to carry out this investment independently, the Soviet Union was asked for help. W 1950 years agreed, that the Warsaw factory will produce cars according to the Soviet license of GAZ M 20 Pobieda, whose design was developed in 1946 year.
Intensive construction and furnishing works in the Żerań factory allowed it to be completed in the fall 1951 year of construction of the assembly and paint shop. The first car, which was given the name Warsaw was assembled on 6 November 1951 year. The above date was adopted as the beginning of the activity of Fabryka Samochodow Osobowych in Warsaw.
The first cars from Żerań had the following technical characteristics. Four-stroke, the four-cylinder M-20 engine was positioned longitudinally above the front axle of the vehicle. The displacement was 2,120 dm3. At compression ratio 6,2 the engine was running 36,8 kW at 3600 rpm. A lower valve timing system was used, mixed pressure splash lubrication and forced circulation liquid cooling. The power supply system uses a K-22A type carburetor with a variable throat cross-section. The cross-section of the main fuel nozzle was controlled by a needle.
In an electric installation with voltage 12 V, a direct current generator with a power was used 220 W. The ignition apparatus had a centrifugal and vacuum control of the ignition advance angle.
The electric starter is operated mechanically. The drive system of the vehicle was solved in a classic way. A single-disc dry semi-centrifugal clutch equipped with a torsional vibration damper was used. The three-stage gearbox had 2nd and 3rd gear synchronization. The drive is transferred to the rear axle by means of a one-piece drive shaft equipped with universal joints. The drive axle in the three-piece sheath contained a conical main gear with a gear ratio 5,125, conical differential and partially loaded driveshafts.
The front wheels of the car were suspended independently on double wishbones cooperating with coil springs and hydraulic arm shock absorbers. j in the rear dependent suspension was used (two longitudinal semi-elliptical springs (The 10 pear) along with shoulder shock absorbers. Tires with dimensions 6.00 — 16″ facilitated the operation of the vehicle on roads with poor surface. The steering system uses a globoidain worm gear. The main hydraulic brake was single-circuit. Front and rear wheel brakes - drum. Auxiliary brake (manual) mechanical acted on the brake shoes of the rear wheels. Self-supporting body, carriage type, four-door, provided a comfortable journey for 5 people. The wheelbase was 2700 mm, length - 4665 mm, width - 1695 mm, and height - 1640 mm. The vehicle had a curb weight all the way 1360 kg, which negatively influenced its dynamics. The maximum speed was specified by the manufacturer at 105 km/h, and fuel consumption on 13,5 dm3 / /100 km.
In the initial period, the FSO design office dealt with the adaptation of the documentation and the introduction of modifications from the licensor. During this period, the control of the gearbox was changed and a new rear axle with a split sheath was used.