History of the development of motorcycles
When we examine the history of motorcycle development more closely, we will find out, that in few areas of human activity, designers have shown so much creative fantasy and extraordinary inventiveness, what about the development of this two-wheeled means of transport.
Attempts to use the engine to drive a two-wheeled vehicle (Michaux-Perreaux steam motorcycle, experiments with pneumatic and electric drive) began in the sixties of the last century. For the prototype of the motorcycle, in today's sense of the word, however, we consider “Reitwagen mit Petroleum Motor” Gottlieb Daimler z 1885 year, although in fact this wooden structure was only meant to allow the Daimler engine to be tried out, designed to drive the car.
In America, E is considered the creator of the two-wheeled vehicle with an internal combustion engine. J. Penningtona. After the first (most often advertising) trials, in years 1890-1893, he built – thanks to the patronage of the manufacturer T. Kane – motorcycle powered by a two-cylinder horizontally arranged engine.
Serial production of single-track vehicles with an internal combustion engine was launched for the first time in 1894 years in Germany. These vehicles, marki Hildebrand & Wolfmuller, were dubbed "motorbikes" for the first time” (not M. motorcycle). However, these were not successful constructions, therefore, their production was discontinued after a few years.
On the other hand, the De Dion-Bouton tricycle with a single-cylinder air-cooled engine was very popular., battery ignition and spark plug. This vehicle in 1896 In the year he participated in car races on the Paris-Marseille-Paris route, which he won in his category with average speed 24 km/h. Three years later, in a similar race, this vehicle achieved a sensational average for those times – 45 km/h! No wonder then, that the de Diona tricycle found buyers not only all over Europe, but even in America.
The construction of the Werner brothers' motorcycle from Paris was interesting. In your vehicle (the base of which was the bicycle frame) they fastened the drive motor - with a belt - the front wheel. This idea found followers among many motorcycle manufacturers and has survived (perfected) until the outbreak of the First World War.
The Czech company Laurin & Klement (in Austria-Hungary) used a different solution. The frame structure was adapted to the engine in this way, that it was encased with it. The belt transmitted the drive to the rear wheel. It was an innovative construction, whose advantages were confirmed by victories in the largest international competition at the time – Coupe International - in France.
The first interesting English construction was the Butler tricycle with 1887 year, named The Petrol-Cycle. Also worth mentioning are:. in. British Holden's motorcycle (1897) with a four-cylinder horizontal engine, driving the rear wheel with connecting rods and cranks.
The first motorcycles had many features in common with bicycles. Frame with a typical, trapezoidal shape, pedal chain transmission and "stiff."” the suspension confirmed the "bicycle pedigree."” motorcycle from the turn of the century.
The engine was usually placed in the lower clean frame, and the drive was transferred - initially with a flat leather belt, later a wedge-shaped rubber - on the rear wheel. It happened , and other solutions: motors located above the front driven wheel (with a V-belt) or (like for example. in the Singer, the "motor wheel” with 1900 r.) mounted directly on the rear axle 1 wheels.
The rubber V-profile belt transferred much more driving force, than a leather flat belt. Thanks to its use, the operation of the motorcycle has been simplified: the troublesome stretching of the flat belt and rubbing it with rosin or other pastes has been eliminated (according to "wonderful” secret recipes) . anti-skid, stretching and reacting to weather conditions. However, the problem of durability still remained, the quality of the rubber at that time was insufficient, the surface of the belt was wearing off quickly. Only the use of a chain eliminated these problems (The V-belt was still used after the First World War to transfer the drive from the gearbox to the rear wheel).
At the beginning of the 20th century, almost all solutions found in modern motorcycles were known. Motors: from single-cylinder to five-cylinder, in a V-shaped arrangement, push-pull and stellar, arranged horizontally or vertically, air cooled, water or oil, with or without clutch and gearbox. The drive to the rear wheel was transmitted via a belt, chain or shaft.